2^m*4^n designs with resolution III or IV containing clear by Zhao S., Zhang R.

By Zhao S., Zhang R.

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The form of each individual of a species may be described by the proportions—such as length, height, width, and weight—of the whole organism and of each of its constituent parts. For species of simple organisms Figure 3-6 Dice diagram comparing the variation between two collections of the brachiopod Atrypella phoca. T h e vertical line represents the total range of length in the specimens collected. T h e empty box is two standard deviations long. T h e standard deviation can be calculated by taking the differences between each measurement and the average value (mean), squaring them to eliminate their positive or negative sign, summing them, taking their square root, and dividing by the number of measurements.

This allows comparisons to be made of the amino acid sequences of animals that became extinct in the Pleistocene Epoch with those of modern mammals. Direct comparison of amino acid sequences of fossils older than a million years is not yet possible. Proteins have been detected in fossil shells hundreds of millions of years old, but the molecules have been greatly changed and their original configuration is difficult to reconstruct. 30 INTRODUCTION Figure 3-5 Relation between organisms based on the amino acid sequences in the protein cytochrome c in several mammals, a bird, two reptiles, a fish, an insect, a plant, and a yeast.

By itself, this character would have been of no value in establishing the relationships of this lineage. As mammals diverged into the lineages leading to marsupials and placentals, the presence of fur would be a synapomorphy reflecting the common ancestry of these two groups and differentiating them from all other groups of vertebrates. Within marsupials and placentals, fur is a plesiomorphic character which is of no value in establishing relationships among the many subgroups because it is common to all of them.

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