By Walter H. Fertl
Petroleum formation pressures
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Additional resources for Abnormal Formation Pressures: Implications to Exploration, Drilling, and Production of Oil and Gas Resources
Salt domes and associated overpressures have been encountered in drilling operations on a worldwide basis, both on- and offshore. Sandstone dikes. Sand dikes, similar to shale diapirism, are an overpressure phenomenon. Localized loading of sand in relatively mobile conditions (Laubscher, 1961)causes high pore fluid pressures which are equilibrated by formation of sand dikes. Oomkens (1966)discussed this phenomenon caused by the loading characteristics of migrating dunes that move over impermeable clayey surfaces, thereby locally increasing pore fluid pressures in underlying water sands.
Instead, there were small gas accumulations characterized by rock pressures that were much higher than normal and a constant gas inflow from the deeper parts of the basins. In such cases, potential gas reserves should also include the migrating gas. As suggested by Kalinko (1967),it is economical to exploit such gas pools using one or two wells. Salt diapirism. Salt is known to behave plastically. During short-time tests at elevated temperatures, halite single crystals (Handin and Hager, 1958) flowed without further stress increase when the yield stress was reached.
ABNORMALLY HIGH FORMATION PRESSURES 29 Throughout the world, wherever mud volcanoes are found, there has been rapid Tertiary and/or Late Cretaceous sedimentation; and where evidence is available, pore fluid pressures are abnormally high. R. , 1963). It is unusual in geology to find a phenomenon associated only with rocks of one particular age; however, geologic time is a factor in the escape of abnormally high pore fluid pressures (Ridd, 1970). Nevertheless, mud volcanoes may have erupted in the geologic past, in association with older sediments, their remains being “fossilized”.