Access controlled: the shaping of power, rights, and rule in by Ronald J. Deibert, John G. Palfrey, Rafal Rohozinski,

By Ronald J. Deibert, John G. Palfrey, Rafal Rohozinski, Jonathan Zittrain, Miklos Haraszti

Net filtering, censorship of websites, and on-line surveillance are expanding in scale, scope, and class around the globe, in democratic international locations in addition to in authoritarian states. the 1st iteration of web controls consisted principally of establishing firewalls at key net gateways; China's recognized ''Great Firewall of China'' is among the first nationwide web filtering structures. this present day the hot instruments for web controls which are rising transcend mere denial of data. those new suggestions, which objective to normalize (or even legalize) web keep watch over, contain exact viruses and the strategically timed deployment of allotted denial-of-service (DDoS) assaults, surveillance at key issues of the Internet's infrastructure, take-down notices, stringent phrases of utilization regulations, and nationwide details shaping thoughts. entry managed experiences in this new normative terrain. The ebook, a undertaking from the OpenNet Initiative (ONI), a collaboration of the Citizen Lab on the collage of Toronto's Munk Centre for overseas experiences, Harvard's Berkman middle for web and Society, and the SecDev workforce, bargains six huge chapters that learn net keep watch over in either Western and jap Europe and a bit of shorter nearby reviews and nation profiles drawn from fabric collected by means of the ONI world wide via a mixture of technical interrogation and box learn tools. Chapter authors: Ronald Deibert, Colin Maclay, John Palfrey, Hal Roberts, Rafal Rohozinski, Nart Villeneuve, Ethan Zuckerman info Revolution and international Politics sequence

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16 The intent of the doctrine was as much international as it was domestic, establishing demarcated borders in cyberspace, at least in principle. 17 Domestically, the doctrine was aimed at the use of the Internet by militant groups to conduct information operations, specifically the Chechen insurgency. Within a few years, most other CIS countries had followed suit, adopting variations of the Russian doctrine. ONI Tests for Internet Controls in RUNET The controls outlined previously are qualitatively different from the usual types of controls for which the ONI tests.

The ONI has tested extensively through the CIS region, far deeper and more regularly in fact than in any other region in the world. To date we have documented traditional ‘‘Chinese-style’’ Internet filtering—the deliberate and static blocking of Internet content and services by state sanction—only in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. For the rest of the region, while connectivity may be poor and unreliable, and suffer from the usual rent-seeking distortions found in other developing country environments, the same basic content is available there as in the most open country contexts.

It also creates double jeopardy for international content providers (such as the BBC, CNN, and others) and opens the question whether they should register their services locally. In practice, the registration requirement applies to them so long as their audience is local, and a failure to comply leaves open the option to filter their content for ‘‘noncompliance’’ with local registration requirements. On the other hand, registering would make the content they carry subject to local laws, which may deem their content ‘‘unacceptable’’ or ‘‘slanderous’’ and could lead to legally sanctioned filtering.

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