By K Attenborough; V I Tokarev; Oleksandr Zaporozhets
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Additional info for Aircraft noise propagation, exposure & reduction : assessment , prediciton and control
Reduction in the noise of the tail rotor for a single main rotor can be achieved by increasing the number of blades, tapering the tip of the rotor and placing the tail rotor in an annulus. 4 Criteria and methods of aircraft noise assessment To evaluate the effectiveness of aircraft noise abatement during airport operations, several different criteria may be employed:19−24 • • • • • the number of people within speciﬁed noise contours; the physical extent of speciﬁed noise contours; the number of noise complaints received; the amount of time communities are exposed to noise above a predetermined level; the number of noise events above a predetermined level to which communities are exposed.
Noise annoyance is strongly connected with speciﬁc effects, such as the necessity to close windows in order to enable sleep, disturbance or interference with communication, listening to the TV, the radio or music. Additionally, a number of serious medical effects may arise, such as high blood pressure, mental stress, heart attacks and hearing damage, although the latter concerns a smaller part of the population. Furthermore, there are negative effects on the learning capabilities of children. It is evident that people reporting noiseinduced annoyance experience a reduced quality of life.
The prime purpose of noise certiﬁcation is to ensure that the latest available noise reduction technology is incorporated into aircraft design demonstrated by procedures which are relevant to day-to-day operations, to ensure that noise reduction offered by technology is reﬂected in reductions around airports. Standards for aircraft noise were ﬁrst adopted by the Council of ICAO on 2 April 1971 pursuant to the provisions of Article 37 of the Convention and designated as Annex 16 to the Convention.