By Frank L. Smith III
Biological guns have threatened U.S. nationwide protection considering that not less than global struggle II. traditionally, despite the fact that, the U.S. army has overlooked examine, improvement, acquisition, and doctrine for biodefense. Following September eleven and the anthrax letters of 2001, the us all started spending billions of bucks in step with 12 months on clinical countermeasures and organic detection structures. yet so much of this investment now comes from the dep. of healthiness and Human prone instead of the dep. of safeguard. Why has the U.S. army overlooked biodefense and allowed civilian firms to take the lead in protecting the rustic opposed to organic assaults? In American Biodefense, Frank L. Smith III addresses this perplexing and mostly untold tale approximately technology, expertise, and nationwide security.
Smith argues that organizational frames and stereotypes have brought on either army forget and the increase of civilian biodefense. within the armed providers, influential principles approximately kinetic battle have undermined safeguard opposed to organic battle. The impression of those principles on technology and expertise demanding situations the traditional knowledge that nationwide safety coverage is pushed via threats or bureaucratic pursuits. Given the guidelines at paintings contained in the U.S. army, Smith explains how the teachings realized from biodefense may help clear up different very important difficulties that variety from radiation guns to cyber attacks.
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Extra resources for American Biodefense: How Dangerous Ideas about Biological Weapons Shape National Security
But like identity, prestige is an idea. It is not a generic resource like budget or autonomy. Moreover, the interpretation of prestige is neither obvious nor inevitable. Even if the US military interprets the use of nonkinetic weapons as lacking prestige, the same logic need not automatically apply to defense against them. For example, arson is not a prestigious crime (at least not compared to grand theft auto, if movies and video games are to be believed), but civilian firefighters still enjoy a very honorable profession.
If a bureaucratic organization is assigned responsibility for biodefense, then officials inside that organization will compete for resources by promoting research, development, acquisition, and doctrine. ”64 The special interests of these officials should also provide collective action advantages over any diffuse opposition that they might face. As a result, these officials are predicted to be prominent players in policymaking relating to biodefense. They may not win every turf war, but nor should they always lose.
67 They define the problems that an organization will solve, diagnose the causes, and prescribe possible solutions. ”68 These routines include the handbooks and computer programs that are used to solve problems, for instance, and the frames that organizations apply are manifest in the vocabulary and jargon used to discuss problems and solutions. Because they depend on language and practice, organizational frames are socially constructed. , these ideas are not an automatic response to the threat environment).