By Michiel Steyaert, Arthur H.M. van Roermund, Johan Huijsing
Analog Circuit layout is an important reference resource for analog circuit designers and researchers wishing to maintain abreast with the most recent improvement within the box. the educational assurance additionally makes it appropriate to be used in a sophisticated layout direction.
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Extra info for Analog Circuit Design: RF Circuits: Wide band, Front-Ends, DAC's, Design Methodology and Verification for RF and Mixed-Signal Systems, Low Power and Low Voltage
4. Case Study : The Transmitter The next sections provide more detail on the design trade-offs used in the transmitter part of the chip. 1. Targets The constant envelope frequency modulation of the Bluetooth system allows several topologies to be used for the transmitter part of the chip. The most widely spread topologies are the IQ up-conversion of a low frequency signal to the channel frequency and also the direct modulation of the oscillator. The IQ up-conversion topologies can be segmented based on IF frequency and on the PLL topology.
The designed 7dBm (=5mW) output power is confirmed by the first measurement results. The additional current consumption is approximately 1 mA per dB. So, for achieving the 7dBm power level only 4mA additional current is required. This is also indicated in Table 1. 2mA for the dynamic current increase in the PA. It is important to note that this additional power capability has been implemented without any additional cost (neither area nor current) at nominal class-II operating mode, as no extra stages have been used to increase the power.
In order to take optimal benefit from the experience gained by a first generation Bluetooth radio, predecessor of the presented chip, and in order to have a fast time to market, the existing direct IQ up-conversion transmitter topology has been used as a starting point . 0 standard, called “ Enhanced Data Rate”, which uses non-constant envelope modulation. In the direct oscillator modulation topology 32 this requires amplitude modulation in the power amplifier, increasing the complexity and the risk significantly.