By Christian Grovermann
This learn combines econometrics and agent-based modelling to judge the affects of a number pesticide use relief ideas within the context of Thai highland agriculture. Pesticide productiveness and pesticide overuse are quantified, whereas determinants of the adoption of thoughts in pesticide use aid are anticipated. On that foundation, the Mathematical Programming-based Multi Agent process (MPMAS), a bio-economic simulation version, is used to ex-ante assess the adoption of built-in Pest administration (IPM) together with a sequence of market-based tools that improve the transition to extra sustainable pest keep an eye on practices. The MPMAS simulation effects reveal that, over 5 years, it really is attainable to convey down degrees of pesticide use considerably with out source of revenue trade-offs for farm brokers. A proportional tax, expanding the cost of artificial insecticides by way of 50% on ordinary, including bio-pesticide subsidies for IPM proves to be the main low cost and doable coverage package deal. IPM practices are followed by means of as much as seventy five% of farm brokers and pesticide use discounts succeed in as much as 34%.
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Extra resources for Assessment of Pesticide Use Reduction Strategies for Thai Highland Agriculture: Combining Econometrics and Agent-based Modelling
The spatial and temporal distributions of changes, and their implications for environmental quality were outside the scope of such analysis. ” (Falconer, 2000) Many of the weaknesses mentioned above can be remedied through the use of multi-agent systems. Using these systems, a range of diverse farm types and individual behaviours can be modelled in space and time, which is a useful addition to the previous studies on crop protection policies. , 2006). , 2010). The MPMAS application used in this study was parameterized with farm and plot level data taken from intensive and diverse production systems in the mountainous north of Thailand, and in particular the Mae Sa watershed, where the adoption of cash crops has been accompanied by very high levels of pesticide use.
So far, in the context of the debate on restricting pesticide use in tropical countries, little is known about the determinants of farmers’ innovativeness or lack thereof, nor about the diffusion process for pesticide use reduction innovations. A greater level of knowledge regarding the adoption of sustainability innovations, such as the certification for GAP and also IPM practices, is needed to better understand the opportunities and challenges involved. The Thai public GAP standard is a very relevant innovation that has been increasingly adopted by farmers in the region.
Besides issues regarding enforcement and sufficient monitoring capacities, bans have been criticized as too blunt, because they do not allow farmers to deal with reduction targets that involve the gradual shift or phasing-out of pesticides which are authorized, but still of concern (Pina and Forcada, 2004). Similarly, regulations that limit pesticide use quantities are also rather blunt; pre-defined limits cannot differentiate between different types of polluters. In contrast, economic incentives or disincentives offer the prospect of reducing pollution beyond set criteria and are, from a social welfare perspective, generally more efficient.