Assessment of Research Needs for Advanced Fuel Cells by S. S. Penner

By S. S. Penner

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1 2 , v o l t a g e d e g r a d a t i o n i s a n e a r l y l i n e a r f u n c t i o n o f t h e l o g a r i t h m of h o t o p e r a t i n g t i m e . A f t e r 1 0 , 0 0 0 h , f u r t h e r d e c a y s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e b e s m a l l (about 2 0 0 B T U / k W h i n going f r o m 10, 000 t o 4 0 , 000 h ) . A s a r e s u l t , t y p i c a l m i d - l i f e h e a t - r a t e s w e r e e s t i m a t e d t o b e 7 990 B T U / k W h a t 1 0 , 0 0 0 h o n a 1 0 * Ό d a y a n d 8080 B T U / k W h on a 35^0 day.

3 0 - m ^ c o m p o n e n t s ) w a s t e s t e d d u r i n g 197 6 - 7 7 a t t h e U T C f a c i l i t y a n d s u p p l i e d p o w e r t o t h e u t i l i t y g r i d . Starting in 1976, t h i s and s u b s e q u e n t w o r k on the UTC e l e c t r i c utility P A - p o w e r plant h a s b e e n s u p p o r t e d by t h e D o E o r i t s p r e d e c e s s o r , t h e E n e r g y R e s e a r c h a n d D e v e l o p m e n t A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , jointly with E P R I . W o r k - s h a r i n g w a s conducted so that c e l l - s t a c k t e c h n o l o g y i m p r o v e m e n t w a s D o E s u p p o r t e d , w h e r e a s u t i l i t y input ( s y s t e m s and g r i d i n t e g r a t i o n ) w a s p r o v i d e d by E P R I .

O n e of the f i r s t d e v e l o p m e n t s i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of m o d e r n c e l l t e c h n o l o g y w a s t h e u s e of the m a t r i x - i m m o b i l i z e d e l e c t r o l y t e , in w h i c h the PA w a s h e l d by c a p i l l a r y a c t i o n . S o m e e a r l y a t t e m p t s w e r e m a d e with g l a s s and quartz f i b e r s , w h i c h a r e e v e n t u a l l y c o r r o d e d by hot P A , but patents for m o r e stable t e f l o n - b o n d e d Β and Zr p h o s p h a t e s date f r o m the m i d - 1 9 6 0 s , The first c e l l s u s i n g t h i s t e c h n o l o g y w e r e a v a i l a b l e f o r p u r c h a s e f r o m E n g e l h a r d I n d u s t r i e s i n I966.

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