Atlas of Fundus Autofluorscence Imaging by Frank Holz, Richard Spaide, Alan C. Bird, Steffen

By Frank Holz, Richard Spaide, Alan C. Bird, Steffen Schmitz-Valckenberg (eds.)

During fresh years, FAF (Fundus autofluorescence) imaging has been proven to be priceless in quite a few retinal illnesses in regards to diagnostics, documentation of alterations, id of ailment development, and tracking of novel cures. Hereby, FAF imaging provides more information above and past traditional imaging tools.
This distinctive atlas presents a accomplished and updated evaluation of FAF imaging in retinal illnesses. It additionally compares FAF findings with different imaging concepts such as
fundus picture, fluorescein- and ICG angiography in addition to optical coherence tomography.
General ophthalmologists in addition to retina experts will locate this a truly beneficial consultant which illustrates average FAF features of varied retinal diseases.

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The most striking feature of NIR-FAF images of a normal retina is an area of high autofluorescence that is roughly centered on the fovea (Fig. 6a) and corresponds to the central area of higher RPE melanin seen in color images [60]. Higher NIR-FAF Fig. 6 Autofluorescence images obtained with a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (HRAc, Heidelberg Engineering) using 488 nm short-wavelength and 787 nm near-infrared as excitation wavelengths. a Images from a 44-year-old subject with normal retinal status.

Fitzke, Frank G. 1 The Confocal Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope (cSLO) The confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO), which was originally developed by Webb and coworkers, projects a low-power laser beam on the retina (Fig. 1) [11]. The laser beam is deflected by oscillating mirrors to sequentially scan the fundus in x and y directions. The intensity of the reflected light at each point, after passing through the confocal pinhole, is registered by means of a detector, and a two-dimensional image is subsequently generated.

Image quality is slightly improved by better visualization of fine details after focus corrections for the blue-wavelength laser light (Fig. 2c,d). 2 Detector Sensitivity False sensitivity adjustments of the detector can cause low image quality and may lead to inaccurate interpretation of FAF findings. 2e). Note that because of the normalization of the pixel distribution, the actual image does not appear very dark. This could be seen only on a single image of this series. Without the examiner’s awareness of this phenomenon, this artefact may not be recognized, and the analysis could lead to inadequate conclusions.

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