By Paul F. Hendrix (auth.), Paul F. Hendrit (eds.)
The so much conspicuous organic invasions in terrestrial ecosystems were via unique vegetation, bugs and vertebrates. much less conspicuous yet almost certainly of equivalent significance are invasions by means of soil invertebrates, that are taking place actually underneath our ft. everyday examples contain the South American hearth ant (Solenopsis invicta) which has invaded North the US and Australia, and the recent Zealand flatworm (Arthurdendyus triangulatus) which has turn into general within the uk; either have prompted substantial ecological and financial harm. there's now facts that unique earthworm invasions are expanding world-wide and should be having major affects on soil methods and plant groups in a few areas. a lot continues to be discovered approximately those ‘cryptic’ organic invasions. The papers during this publication are in keeping with efforts through a world crew of soil ecologists to evaluate the organic and ecological mechanisms of earthworm invasions, their geographic quantity and affects on terrestrial ecosystems, and attainable skill through which earthworm invasions should be mitigated.
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Extra info for Biological Invasions Belowground: Earthworms as Invasive Species
Frelich Æ Cindy M. Hale Æ Stefan Scheu Æ Andrew R. Holdsworth Æ Liam Heneghan Æ Patrick J. Bohlen Æ Peter B. V. 2006 L. , Chicago, IL 60614-3207, USA with soil parent material, land use history, and assemblage of invading earthworm species. Earthworms reduce the thickness of organic layers, increase the bulk density of soils and incorporate litter and humus materials into deeper horizons of the soil proﬁle, thereby affecting the whole soil food web and the above ground plant community. Mixing of organic and mineral materials turns mor into mull humus which signiﬁcantly changes the distribution and community composition of the soil microﬂora and seedbed conditions for vascular plants.
2004) found an increase in P leaching and decrease in P availability on plots in a New York sugar maple forest dominated by L. rubellus. Although phosphorous availability in upper soil horizons increased in plots with L. terrestris, presumably because L. terrestris brought mineral soil from deeper horizons to the surface where it could be weathered, a net leaching loss of P from the ecosystem is still expected. Some soils lack sufﬁcient unweathered P to maintain P availability despite leaching losses, and L.
2002). This combination of altered ecosystem properties resulted in a soil that may be less suitable for natives than for the propagules of invaders. In this case the reciprocal relationship between the invasive shrub and earthworms resulted in a situation where each species positively reinforced the population of the other species (Heneghan 2003). Following earthworm invasions, the increase in soil bulk density and loss of the duff, which absorbs water during rainfall events and slowly releases it into the soil, could lead to a more xeric ecosystem.