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References Levin O, Chernoray VG, Lofdahl L, Henningson DS (2005) A study of the Blasius wall jet. J Fluid Mech 539:313–347 Litvinenko MV (2005) Formation and role of longitudinal structures at laminar-turbulent transition in jets. D. thesis, Novosibirsk State Technical University, in Russian Monkewitz PA, Huerre P (1982) Influence of the velocity ratio on the spatial instability of mixing layers. Phys Fluids 25(7):1137–1143 Reuter J, Rempfer D (2000) A hybrid spectral/ﬁnite-difference scheme for the simulation of pipe-flow transition.
Starting from about x = 30 mm the 2D Kelvin–Helmholtz vortices grow rapidly and the characteristic scale of the modulation becomes smaller. At the jet core velocity increased up to U0 = 15 m/s the laminar-turbulent transition was accelerated with some reduction of the transverse scale of Fig. 2 Three-Dimensional Perturbations of the Wall Plane Jet 29 Fig. 8 Longitudinal disturbances excited in the free shear layer by the roughness elements at variation of their spacing: mean velocity disturbance as isosurfaces corresponding to ±5 % of U0; positive and negative values are in red and blue, respectively; U0 = 8 m/s Fig.
3 Interaction of the Primary Vortices with the Longitudinal Disturbances 19 Fig. 6 General view of the round jet (a); a cross section (b); streamwise sections at R1 (c) and R2 (d); positions of the ring vortices and the longitudinal perturbations are marked by 1 and 2, respectively (see Presentation Chap. 2: “Multimedia ﬁles Nos. com) vortices. Thus the streamwise elongated perturbations are likely spreading far downstream up to the jet turbulization. 4 High-Frequency Instability of the Longitudinal Perturbations Inducing local velocity gradients in shear layers, the three-dimensional disturbances are often prone to high-frequency oscillations stimulating the laminar-turbulent transition.