By Henry Bolingbroke, David Armitage
Bolingbroke: Political Writings offers the 1st obtainable, modernized and annotated texts of 3 of crucial works in eighteenth-century British political inspiration. those works, the Dissertation upon events, the letter "On the Spirit of Patriotism" and the belief of the Patriot King jointly shaped the 1st coherent platform of a political competition circulate in Anglo-American politics and prompted not just radicals in Britain, however the American Founding Fathers and the French Revolutionaries.
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The House of Representatives was meant to be a democratic body, a people’s assembly intended to reflect the concerns of the overwhelming majority of citizens who lacked extensive property. By contrast, the Senate was initially designed as an aristocratic council deliberative in nature and gathered from those whose wealth afforded them an education equal to their task. To these democratic and aristocratic elements the Founders added a president, the monarchical element in a mixed government in which authority was shared among the three types of polity (monarchy, aristocracy, democracy) recognized in classical Greece.
7). 23–30), that their complex system of balances was the chief cause of their success. Mixed-government theory dominated Western political thought throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance until the rise of Absolutism in the seventeenth century. In response to Absolutist ideas, English republicans like Algernon Sidney (1622–1683) reasserted classical arguments against simple systems of government and added Great Britain to their list of successful mixed constitutions. 4 James Harrington (1611–1677) contributed the theory of natural aristocracy, a concept essential to any American adaptation of mixed-government theory.
Simply stated, early American collegiate education, with its pronounced classical bias, successfully met the stated goals of preparing young men for service to religious and public life. There is no better testimony of this success than the record of accomplishment of the 469 graduates of the College of New Jersey during the presidency of the Reverend John Witherspoon from 1769 to 1794. S. S. 47 Throughout life, most American college graduates of the eighteenth century continued to pursue intellectual interests in classical antiquity that their education had opened to them.