By C.M. Krowne
This publication bargains with the topic of optical and digital destructive refraction (NR) and detrimental index fabrics NIM). various ways for attaining NR and NIM are lined, equivalent to utilizing photonic crystals, phononic crystals, split-ring resonators (SRRs) and non-stop media, focusing of waves, guided-wave habit, and nonlinear results. particular issues taken care of are polariton thought for LHMs (left passed materials), focusing of waves, guided-wave habit, nonlinear optical results, magnetic LHM composites, SRR-rod realizations, low-loss guided-wave bands utilizing SRR-rods unit cells as LHMs, NR of electromagnetic and digital waves in uniform media, box distributions in LHM guided-wave buildings, dielectric and ferroelectric NR bicrystal heterostructures, LH metamaterial photonic-crystal lenses, subwavelength focusing of LHM/NR photonic crystals, focusing of sound with NR and NIMs, and LHM quasi-crystal fabrics for focusing.