By Roger V. Des Forges, Luo Ning, Wu Yen-Bo
This examine examines the method of democratization in China, taking as a focus the hot concern of 1989 in Tiananmen sq., yet offering broader ancient views from either chinese language and American students. The authors evaluation China's political background, from theories of despotism in chinese language civilization to proof for China's personal democratic traditions. additionally they learn the more moderen political and social crises of the Eighties resulting in the large city demonstrations within the spring of 1989, with the conflicts that experience divided the agricultural lots, the nation, the military, the cultural elite, and the media in China; and so they talk about what those occasions let us know approximately China's cultural and political destiny.
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Extra info for Chinese Democracy and the Crisis of 1989: Chinese and American Reflections
2. Che Muqi, Beijing Turmoil: More than Meets the Eye (Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, 1990), p. i. 3. Roger V. , China: the Crisis of 1989, Origins and Implications, Special Studies nos. 158, 159 (Buffalo: Council on International Studies and Programs of the State University of New York at Buffalo, 1990), 2 vols. 4. , vol. 1, pp. 15. Page 7 I HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES Page 9 1 The Formation and Characteristics of China's Existing System Su Shaozhi The year 1989 was an extraordinary one in modern world history.
The 1989 democratic movement and its military crackdown reflected the conflict between reformers who wanted to change elements of the system and conservative hardliners who wanted to keep the old system. The Characteristics of China's Existing System The Polish scholar Wlodzimierz Brus noted that totalitarianism has four major characteristics: (1) the domination of the bureaucratic apparatus over formally elected bodies throughout the entire political structure; (2) the replacement of meaningful elections by appointment of candidates for party, state, and union posts from above by the higher levels of bureaucracy; (3) a leading role for the party, interpreted as the complete subordination of all other institutions to the party apparatus and total prohibition of all independent political initiatives; (4) the monopoly control of the mass media, including universal prior censorship.
Marx described three preconditions for socialist revolution: (1) socialized production in economies characterized by highly developed productive forces; (2) a high level of culture; and (3) revolutions simultaneously erupting in several industrialized countries. On these foundations, the new society would demonstrate its superiority over the old one. Because those self-proclaimed socialist countries did not resemble the socialist society envisioned by Marx, I call them existing socialist countries.