Clinical MR Imaging by Wolfgang R. Nitz, Thomas Balzer, Daniel S. Grosu, Thomas

By Wolfgang R. Nitz, Thomas Balzer, Daniel S. Grosu, Thomas Allkemper (auth.), Prof. Dr. Peter Reimer, Prof. Dr. Paul M. Parizel, Prof. James F. M. Meaney, Dr. Falko A. Stichnoth (eds.)

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has develop into the top cross-sectional imaging strategy in scientific perform. non-stop technical advancements have considerably broadened the scope of purposes. at this time, MR imaging isn't just crucial diagnostic method in neuroradiology and musculoskeletal radiology, yet has additionally turn into a useful diagnostic software for stomach, pelvic, cardiac, breast and vascular imaging. This publication bargains useful instructions for acting effective and good value MRI examinations in day-by-day perform. The underlying thought is that, through adopting a pragmatic protocol-based procedure, the work-flow in a MRI unit should be streamlined and optimized.

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Whatever value is delivered by any of these paths, the most conservative is taken and displayed as the SAR value. Any RF pulse within the protocol to be executed will contribute to the SAR. This can be spatial saturation pulses, fat saturation pulses, inversion pulses, magnetization transfer saturation (MTS) pulses, excitation, or refocusing pulses. In cases where the SAR limit exceeds the guidelines, the following measures will help: • Prolong the TR (prolonging the measurement time) will help to spread the energy over a longer time window.

The sequence is named fast spin echo sequence - FSE or turbo spin echo sequence - TSE. This technique has replaced conventional SE imaging for PD-W and T2-W imaging. It is even sometimes utilized in T1-W imaging. The theoretical penalty for each Fourier line having a different T2-weighting is well compensated as protocols involving TSE imaging techniques usually use a longer TR for an improved contrast compared to the conventional SE techniques, and they often utilize a larger matrix size, leading to improved spatial resolution.

It is even sometimes utilized in T1-W imaging. The theoretical penalty for each Fourier line having a different T2-weighting is well compensated as protocols involving TSE imaging techniques usually use a longer TR for an improved contrast compared to the conventional SE techniques, and they often utilize a larger matrix size, leading to improved spatial resolution. It has been documented that these measures 28 W. R. Nitz et al. Fig. 23 Illustration of a classical multiecho spin-echo sequence. Additional 180° RF refocusing pulses after the initial first spin echo will allow the acquisition of additional images with longer echo times.

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