By Morris Freedman, Larry Leach, Edith Kaplan, Gordon Winocur, Kenneth Shulman, Dean C. Delis
Written by way of a multidisciplinary workforce of specialists in neurobehavior, this concise, well-illustrated publication presents normative information on clock drawing from a long time 20 to ninety years. a pragmatic advisor to the quantitative evaluation of clock drawing, it additionally takes a process-oriented method of qualitative impairment. The authors talk about clock drawing as a neuropsychological try out device and the reason for choosing particular time settings, in addition to the foundation for utilizing diverse clock stipulations. The ebook includes a number of examples of clocks drawn by way of sufferers with cognitive impairment as a result of dementia, metabolic encephalopathy, demanding mind damage, disconnection syndrome and focal mind lesions. perception into adjustments in clock drawing skill that could characterize the earliest markers of cognitive decline in dementia also are provided. This quantity might be of curiosity to clinicians and researchers in neuropsychology, neurology, psychiatry, geriatric drugs, language treatment, and occupational remedy.
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Extra info for Clock Drawing: A Neuropsychological Analysis
In fact, very expensive timepieces often lack numbers. The distinction between the hour and minute hands was based upon an arbitrary decision dating back many centuries. We all learn at an early age that the "big hand" represents the minutes and the "little hand" represents the 22 Clock Drawing Figure 2-6 (A) and (B) Omission and substitution of numbers; 77-year-old female. hours. Once this rule and the relative placement of the numbers are learned, time can be decoded with a glance at the positions of the hands.
To obtain a complete measure of the abilities involved in clock drawing, we recommend that all conditions used in the present study be given. This includes the "6:45" free-drawn clock, as well as the "6:05" pre-drawn clock and the "11:10," "8:20," and "3:00" examiner clocks. The total time to complete all three conditions is approximately 6 to 10 minutes. Moreover, scoring is relatively reliable and quick. One aspect of clock drawing that was not dealt with in the normative study relates to the value of specific types of errors on clock drawing for identifying or discriminating specific neurological dysfunction.
B) Alzheimer's disease, female, age = 63 years, DRS = 103. They may, however, combine Arabic numerals and strokes at the sites of the numbers. Patients with dementia may do this as well. For some, the strokes are placed first to indicate where the numbers should appear. Placement of numbers in the correct position was the critical item for numbers on which normals had the greatest difficulty. Not surprisingly, it was also the critical item for numbers on which patients with dementia also did the most poorly.