By Donald Kelly, Stuart Dutton, D. Kelly, S. Dutton A. A. Baker
The 2d variation of this best-selling booklet presents an creation to almost all facets of the know-how of composite fabrics as utilized in aeronautical layout and constitution. The textual content discusses vital alterations within the know-how of composites from that of metals--intrinsic substantial transformations and their implications for production procedures, structural layout tactics, and in-service functionality of the fabrics, relatively concerning the reason and nature of wear which may be sustained.
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Additional info for Composite Materials for Aircraft Structures
18) where a} is the transverse expansion coefficient for the fiber, which often differs significantly from the longitudinal value a T . Carbon fibers represent an extreme case of variation because the fiber is highly anisotropic. Thus, although ae is • around 0, the a} is around l0 --60 C --1 . For the epoxy resin am ----55 x l0 --60 C- - 1 However, this model does not account for any interaction between the fiber and matrix, due in part to ignoring differences in Poisson's ratio, and leads to the conclusion that there are no thermally induced stresses between the fiber and matrix.
Ratio of contraction in the transverse direction consequent on an extension in the fiber direction) G 1 2 = in-plane shear modulus al = longitudinal thermal expansion coefficient o¢2 transverse expansion coefficient = The main strength values required are: 0~1 = longitudinal strength (both tensile and compressive) 0-u22= transverse strength (both tensile and compressive) ~12 = shear strength where the superscript u refers to ultimate strength. 2. Note that the representative volume element shown, is the full thickness of the single ply and that the simplified "twodimensional" element is used in the following analyses.
3 used to estimate E 1. 1 = e f = P-'m = ~ff -~ O"m afAT = Em + °lmAT where AT = temperature change. 17) Because, in many composites, a f << am the c~f term can be ignored in the equation. 2 Transverse Expansion Coefficient oL2. 3. To BASIC PRINCIPLES OF FIBER COMPOSITE MATERIALS 35 000 000 C=O C-1 ISOLATED FIBERS RESIN CONTIGUOUS ISOLATED MATRIX FIBERS CONTIGUOUS Extremes of fiber contiguity. Schematic diagram of actual fiber arrangement Fig. 7 estimate Concept of contiguity used for semi-empirical-elasticity solutions.