Computational Aspects of VLSI (Principles of Computer by Jeffrey D. Ullman

By Jeffrey D. Ullman

Subject material is split into 3 components. the 1st covers VLSI-oriented computations. the second one half is orientated to the layout of algorithms. The 3rd a part of the ebook issues VLSI layout instruments and the algorithms that underlie them. every one bankruptcy comprises routines to check the elemental strategies and to increase the information of the bankruptcy.

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Extra resources for Computational Aspects of VLSI (Principles of Computer Science Series)

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Restorers Frequently, after signals have passed through a pass transistor, such as a clocking gate, they become the input to a pullup/pulldown network, thereby restoring the signal to VDD, if it is high. However, if we wish to restore a signal that has fallen below VDD, so it can be the input to a pass transistor network, we need a special circuit to do so. The simplest restorer circuit is a pair of inverters, as shown in Fig. 14(a), since if the input to the first is high, the output of the second will be not only "high" but exactly at VDD, since the resistance of the second puildown is infinite.

006 nanosecond. Since the largest chips in the early 1980's are about 10 millimeters on a side, wires cannot get too much bigger than our example, and the speed of light generally can be ignored. 3 ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF CIRCUITS , b I I ;- i X' t -;- 82 al a2 46 T L-1 02 1 ( -4 Iql 4: 1 27 '9'4 a. A Jo T L-1 i Fig. 20. One bit of a bus. I - -t a , +. 1ra- ase Isuitue s. ~. 4L- _ __-T_ 1r I_r - but 11 1- - punlup. In puase one ol a two-phase clock cycle, we allow charge to enter the wire, regardless of which signal we eventually wish to send through the wire.

L 3 Out (a) Inverter pair Out (b) Superbuffer Fig. 14. Methods of restoring signals. Notice that as current passes through the second and subsequent pass transistors, there are no further drops in voltage, because the 4 volts on the wire is a volt below each of the gates. However, the drop in voltage will compound if the wire at 4 volts is the gate of another pass transistor, because then, as we see on the right end of Fig. 13, the wire through that pass transistor must drop to 3 volts in order to be a volt lower than the gate.

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