By Pieter A. J. Nuyts, Patrick Reynaert, Wim Dehaene
This e-book describes the layout of totally electronic multistandard transmitter front-ends which could at once force a number of switching energy amplifiers, therefore casting off all different analog elements. After reviewing assorted architectures, the authors concentrate on polar architectures utilizing pulse width modulation (PWM), that are solely in line with unclocked hold up traces and different continuous-time electronic undefined. for that reason, readers are enabled to shift accuracy issues from the voltage area to the time area, to coincide with submicron CMOS know-how scaling. The authors current diversified architectural thoughts and examine them, according to their impression at the sign and spectrum caliber. subsequent, a high-level theoretical research of 2 varied PWM-based architectures – baseband PWM and RF PWM – is made. at the circuit point, conventional electronic elements and layout options are revisited from the perspective of continuous-time electronic circuits. very important layout standards are pointed out and assorted strategies are offered, in addition to their benefits and drawbacks. eventually, chips designed in nanometer CMOS applied sciences are defined, besides size effects for validation.
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Additional resources for Continuous-Time Digital Front-Ends for Multistandard Wireless Transmission
In this work, the implementation of wireless transmitters using continuous-time digital hardware is investigated. The effect of digitization on the RF signals will be analyzed, and design aspects specific to continuous-time digital design will be investigated. Afterwards, the feasibility of continuous-time digital RF front-ends will be demonstrated by measurements on three transmitter front-ends implemented on two CMOS test chips. e. different carrier frequencies, bandwidths and modulation schemes), • fully integrated in nanoscale standard CMOS technology, • scalable, and • efficient in terms of power and area, while still achieving • sufficient signal quality to meet the specifications of modern communication standards, and • acceptable out-of-band power in order not to interfere with other communication channels.
In class-E amplifiers, the parasitic capacitance of the transistor can be used as part of Cd so that no tuning is required to compensate it. This is another advantage of class-E PAs. Finally, a class-E PA requires only one power transistor compared to two transistors for a class-D PA. Furthermore, the pMOS transistor is usually larger due to its higher on resistance compared to an nMOS transistor of the same size. Because of this, a class-D PA presents a significantly higher input capacitance than a class-E PA .
2, some architectures produce more out-ofband power than others, and the frequencies where this power is located also depend on the architecture. Generally, digital architectures produce more out-of-band power than analog ones due to the voltage quantization. In general, PAs and antennas are band-limited and thus inherently perform some bandpass filtering. In addition, an on-chip bandpass filter can be added if needed. However, these types of filtering are usually relatively weak, and furthermore on-chip filters are normally realized using passive components which take a lot of area.