By Graham M. Davies, Daniel B. Wright
Study on utilized reminiscence is among the so much lively, fascinating and colourful components in experimental psychology. This booklet describes the suitable examine and applies it to key components of latest research: schooling, the legislation and neuroscience.
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Additional info for Current issues in applied memory research
Karpicke and Roediger (2007) replicated these results in a second experiment in which feedback was given after the initial tests. A third experiment conﬁrmed that delaying the ﬁrst test is the critical ingredient in enhancing long-term retention and that the method of distributing retrieval (expanding or equal interval) does not matter. Logan and Balota (2008) reported similar data and reached the same general conclusion. The conclusion that retrieval diﬃculty is the key element promoting better long-term retention for equal interval (relative to expanding or massed) schedules ﬁts well with data reviewed in previous parts of the chapter, such as recall tests producing a greater testing eﬀect than recognition tests.
Only providing students with the correct answer). In general, in order to improve performance, feedback must include corrective information, and the learner may further beneﬁt when an explanation follows the corrective feedback. Although Pashler et al. (2005) found the beneﬁts of corrective feedback to be limited to revising errors, Butler, Karpicke, and Roediger (2007) found that feedback beneﬁts initially correct answers as well as incorrect responses. This recent ﬁnding is consistent with earlier research, which demonstrated that subjects who receive feedback are more likely to ﬁx initial errors and remember initially correct responses on a ﬁnal criterial test (Kulhavy, Yekovich, & Dyer, 1976, 1979).
50), once again demonstrating the power of testing. 66), both of which produced signiﬁcantly more correct responses on the ﬁnal test than all the other conditions. In our view, these two learning conditions contained two critical components – testing (retrieval) and feedback – that the other learning conditions lacked (or had only one or the other), and this combination contributed to best performance on the delayed test. ’s (2008) Experiment 2 on test formats. Proportion correct was greater for test conditions than study conditions; however, subjects predicted learning would be greater for study conditions relative to test conditions.