By David Dery
This is a piece on "hostile" info and the stipulations below which they're authorized and rejected. what's the position of information in politics and association? Why are politicians and directors so frequently adverse to investigate facts, or why do they have a tendency to understand facts as antagonistic to them? How can info turn into appropriate to coverage? those questions are the focal point of this booklet. In solution i attempt to convey how political and administrative associations focus on "hostile" information; how they search to take care of closedness to disconfirming facts, and the way they're led, in a loose society, to alter their rules regardless of the epistemological bias in want of the already recognized and the preliminary inclination to withstand switch. whilst, I exhibit that info manufacturers needs to examine that whereas their examine findings could be subjected to science's personal criteria of verifiability, such info should also meet criteria of contestability through many of the pursuits excited about political and administrative judgements. The creation and "appropriate" booklet of a learn file may possibly at top purchase one an admission price tag to take part in political and administrative contests, yet now not the ability nor the justification to figure out the results of the competition. I start with hypotheses: speculation 1: Politicians or directors reject info that don't coincide with habit they're unwilling to alter. speculation II: Politicians or directors swap habit that doesn't coincide with info they're unwilling to reject.
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Extra resources for Data and Policy Change: The Fragility of Data in the Policy Context
Argyris and Schon's model of organizational learning (1978) likewise proposes that organizations learn through their members, and thus call for educational intervention at the individual level (see also Argyris, 1982). Changes in the organization, writes Kahn, come "as individuals bring into their organizational lives their new theories-in-use and their newly acquired ability to learn ... " (1982, p. 413). Organizations, as Hedberg (1981, p. 6) puts it, "do not have brains, but they do have cognitive systems and memones ...
Policies, Majone agrees, are the equivalent of theories, but theories are not what we thought they were. Recent developments in the philosophy of science, Popperian and post-Popperian, stress the fallibility of theories and the social and historical character of scientific knowledge. Thus, the stress on policy outcomes, rather than 1 I Research Data and Organizational Learning 29 process, must give way to broader approaches in which procedural design assumes primary importance. "Some form of conventionalism is the inescapable logical consequence of fallibility" (Majone, 1980, p.
1978); Knott and Wildavsky (1980); Larsen (1980); Leviton and Hughes (1981) Glaser et al (1983). One is also advised to consult Caplan et al. (1975); Lindblom and Cohen (1979); Weiss (1977); Weiss and Bucuvalas (1980). Selected bibliography on "knowledge utilization", "knowledge creation", and "knowledge diffusion" is 20 Data and Policy Change included in Rich (1980). Lerner (1959), and Lazarsfeld et al (1967) provide an early examination of the question. 6. The Advisory Committee on Government Programs in the Behavioral Sciences suggested: "The decisions and actions taken by the President, the Congress, and the executive departments and agencies must be based on valid social and economic information and involve a high degree of judgement about human behavior.