Digital Metal-oxide Semiconductor Integrated Circuits by Mohamed I. Elmasry

By Mohamed I. Elmasry

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Atomic energy in cosmic and human life;: Fifty years of radioactivity

First released in 1945, within the aftermath of the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Atomic strength in Cosmic and Human existence deals a special account of the matter of atomic power and the underlying ideas of radioactive decay. Written via the pre-eminent physicist George Gamow, and devoted to the desire of lasting peace, the publication used to be initially designed to provide a whole photograph of what atomic power is, the place it comes from, and the way it may be used for higher or worse.

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Again, a shift of ground point is necessary. The conclusion can be drawn that it is usually possible to reduce a practical implementation of a stage into the essential configuration. 3 The Ideal CE Stage with a Large Sinusoidal Input Voltage If the amplitude of the input sinusoid is not small with respect to Vt , a truncated portion of the power series expansion of Ic is not adequate. However, the function exp(d cos ω1 t) has a known expansion. exp(d cos ω1 t) = I0 (d) + 2I1 (d) cos ω1 t + 2I2 (d) cos 2ω1 t + .

8%. 10 V(6) 8 V(6) V(16) 9*V(6)-40 6 4 2 0 0 5 10 15 20 Time (µs) Fig. 23. Transient response of SC pair. 34) can be expanded in a power series and only the first few terms are significant. √ 1−x 1 1 1 = 1 − x − x2 − x3 − . . 34), we obtain 1 id d 1− = ISS 2 2 d 2 2 − ... 38) We next introduce a sinusoidal input voltage and include it in the power series. 303D-04 TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION = V1A = 0. 2 V, Tstep = 0. 680 PERCENT V1A = 2. 0 V, Tstep = 0. 786271 PERCENT Fig. 24. Fourier components of the output voltage for two input amplitudes.

V (6) is also multiplied by 5 to achieve a better comparison. V (6) is seen to be most sinusoidal in form; however, V (16) for the large drive is ‘squashed’ at the extremes. 11, from Spice2, are the amplitudes and (relative) phase of the first nine harmonics of the output waveform of V (6) as well as the values relative to the fundamental. 11 that the harmonic content of the output waveform of the ECP is very small. 11, the value of HD2 is nearly zero. This is to be expected. 8 are antisymmetrical about the quiescent operating point (V1 = 0 V, Vo2 = 5 V).

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