By Erle C. Donaldson
The wettability of oil reservoirs is crucial issue controlling the speed of oil restoration, delivering a profound impression on petroleum creation. The oil has elevated the examine attempt on wettability yet thus far there hasn't ever been a accomplished booklet at the subject. This booklet covers the entire crucial points. serious subject matters contain center maintenance, influence of wettability on relative permeability, floor forces, oil traps and pore dimension impact. decoding the options and examples increases the potency and construction of oil restoration, translating to enhanced reservoir simulations and more suitable good construction.
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Extra resources for Wettability
Enhanced oil recovery processes involve the injection of wettabilityaltering chemicals, heat, caustics, surfactants, polymers, gases, microbes or microbial nutrients, etc. The patterns of the flow of these extraneous constituents in reservoirs are influenced by the geological and petrophysical properties of the specific reservoir, in addition to a sometimes overriding influence of the dispersion (or mixing) between the multiple injected fluids and the miscible reservoir fluids. The dispersion and mixing of industrial wastes injected into deep wells is important to the planning and monitoring of well performance.
Then the USBM index is calculated from the areas under the curves. 0, or when the water saturation is at Swi, clearly defined intermediate-wet cores. 9 Spontaneous Imbibition In very strongly water-wet systems, spontaneous imbibition of water from Swi may increase the water saturation all the way to So, (the imbibition capillary pressure curve, Fig. When this occurs, the USBM wettability index, I,, cannot be determined; and only the displacement-by-water ratio of the Amott wettability index can be determined.
48 Chapter 1-Wettability RFREA SANDSTONF 0 Data from Bizma. Ref 13. at 78'C 0 Doto from Siddiqui, Ref 14. 0 1 ELGlN SANDSTONE 0 Daia from Rizewa, Ref 13, at 7R°C 0 Datn from Siddiyui. Ref 14, at 25°C j 0 1 I I I I I 2 3 4 5 6 I 7 8 Saturation Exponent (b) Figure 1-20 (a) Relationship between wettability and the Archie saturation exponent at two temperatures for Berea cores (K - 200 md). (b) Relationship between wettability and the Archie saturation exponent a t two temperatures for Elgin sandstone cores (K > 1,000, large grain sizes, relatively large pores) (Tiab and Donaldson, 2004).